Friday, July 10, 2009

Operative Functions of HRM

The operative functions of personnel management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz., employment, development, compensation and relations. All these functions are interacted by managerial functions. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions.

Employment

It is the first operative function of HRM. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. It covers the functions such as job analysis, human resources planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.

Job Analysis: It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It includes:

1. Collection of data, information, facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men, machines and materials.

2. Preparation of job description, job specification, job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature, levels and quantum of human resources.

3. Providing the guides, plans and basis for job design and for all operative functions of HRM.

Human Resources Planning:

It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It involves

* Estimation of present and future requirement and supply of human resources basing on objectives and long range plans of the organization.

* Calculation of net human resources requirement based on present inventory of human resources.

* Taking steps to mould, change, and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements.

* Preparation of action programs to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees.

Recruitment:

It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It deals with:

(a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them.

(b) Creation / Identification of new sources of applicants.

(c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization.

(d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources.

Selection:

It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge etc., of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job appraising.

This function includes:

(a) Framing and developing application blanks.
(b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques.
(c) Formulating interviewing techniques.
(d) Checking of references.
(e) Setting up medical examination policy and procedure.
(f) Line manager̢۪s decision.
(g) Sending letters of appointment and rejection.
(h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty.

Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job in terms of job requirements. It is matching of employees specifications with job requirements. This function includes:

(a) Counseling the functional managers regarding placement.

(b) Conducting follow-up study, appraising employee performance in order to determine employee̢۪s adjustment with the job.

(c) Correcting misplacements, if any.

Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc., of the organization.

(a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy, objectives, policies, career planning and development, opportunities, product, market share, social and community standing, company history, culture etc.

(b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peers, supervisors and subordinates.

(c) Mould the employee attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment.

Overall HR Functions

Human Resources Management is one of the most complex and challenging fields of management, it deals with the people dimension in management. Over the past eighty years, various approaches to human resource management have been adopted by companies. The human resource approach which is
currently in vogue, has redefined the way people are treated and managed in organizational contexts. This approach requires that employees of the work force be treated as resources and not just as factors of production (as in scientific approach) or emotional beings with psychological needs (as in the human relations approach).

Basically, HRM includes the four functions of acquiring, developing, motivating and managing the human resources. HRM functions are broadly classified into two categories:

1. Managerial functions

2. Operative Functions

Managerial functions include planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The operative functions of human resource management are related to specific activities of HRM such as recruitment, development, compensation and employee relations.

Human resources play an important role in the development of business and countries. An attracting, retaining, motivating and developing person with varied interests and expectations is a major human resource challenge. Moreover, challenges posed by the turbulent business environment, rapid technological changes, a diverse workforce, and the changing legal and governmental regulations also affect organizations. In this situation, a new role has emerged for Human Resources function, as a value provider, as a key player in organizational working and as a contributor to organization's strategy.

The specialist role of the Human Resource professional takes a number of forms: the auditor's role, the executive's role, the facilitator's role, the consultant's role and the service provider's role. Human Resource Management objectives should be in alignment with the organizational
objectives, and should balance them with the individual and social goals. Human Resource policies, framed after determining the objectives of Human Resource Management, are described as a set of proposals and directions that guide the managers in pursuit of the objectives.

Today's Human Resource professional has a lot of challenges to face in the form of changing composition and attitudes of the work force, growing emphasis on quality of products and services and the quality of the work life, fast paced technological changes, government policies, etc... He has to gear up to meet these challenges effectively by being more innovative and proactive.

Strategic Human Resource Management helps the organization in the achievement of long-term and short-term goals through optimum utilization of human resources. It involves the development of human resources objectives and their alignment with the organizational objectives. Strategic Human Resource Management is the optimum utilization of human resources to achieve the set goals and objectives in the business environment. This has to be in alignment with organizational strategy and in tandem with the strategies of other functional areas like finance and marketing. Objectives are achieved and visions realized only when synchronization takes place. Strategic Human Resource Planning involves designing Human Resource goals in alignment with the goals of the organization, identifying the human resources required to achieve these goals and then developing these resources internally or acquiring them from outside. It also includes the conception and implementation of new Human Resource initiatives required to accomplish organizational goals.