Jobs can be analyzed through a process, which consists of six basic steps. These steps consist of collection of background information, selection of job to be analyzed, collection of job analysis data, developing a job description, job specification and employee specification.
1.Collection of Background Information:
Background information consists of organization charts, class specifications and existing job descriptions. Organization charts show the relation of the job with other jobs in the overall organizations. Class specifications describe the general requirements of the class of job to which this particular job belongs. The existing job description provides a good starting point for job analysis.
2.Selection of Representative Position to be Analyzed:
It would be too difficult and too time consuming to analyze all the jobs. So, the job analyst has to select some of the representative positions in order to analyze them.
3.Collection of Job Analysis Data:
This step involves actually analyzing a job by collection of data on features of the job, required employee behavior and human requirements.
4.Developing a Job Description:
This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations etc.The incumbent of the job is expected to discharge the duties and responsibilities and perform the functions and operations listed in job description.
5.Developing a Job Specification:
This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification. Job specification or job requirements describe the personal qualities, traits, skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done.
6.Developing Employee Specification:
This final step involves conversion of specifications of human qualities under job specification into an employee specification. Employee specification describes physical qualification, educational qualification, experience etc. which specify that the candidate with these qualities possesses the minimum human qualities listed in the job specification.
Job analysis information:
The job analysis provides the following information:
- Job Identification: Job title, location, Job Code, short name, Department and unit.
- Job Summary: Brief job contents its, authority, responsibility, hazards etc.
- Relation to other jobs (Relation with Superiors, peers, subordinates)
- Supervision /taken location in the hierarchy.
- Machines tools, and Equipment used.
- Material ad forms used.
- Conditions of work. Location of work, owing hours, posture standing, stetting, walking –speed, accuracy, health hazards, occupational diseases etc.
- Hazards (accident hazards)
- Physical Skills.
- Physical Effort.
- Communication skills
- Emotional Characteristics
- Unusual sensory demands such as vision, small, hearing etc.
Large organizations may use their internal expertise of senior HR managers to specify and quantify the above listed skills so as to standardize various jobs in the organization. This may be a pre requisite for fixing up designations, positions and pay scales and other employee related, matters. In case of medium and small firms, they may use outside expert help on determining the above. A systematic approach in this regards by whatever the size of the organizations will be in the long term benefits for the organization and give clarity to their HR policy and resultant productivity.