Need for Job Analysis
Procurement (for personnel/human resources) is the first operative function of personnel management, which can be subdivided into various sub functions like human resources planning, recruitment and selection. Management should determine the kind of personnel require for a job and the number of persons to be employed. The organization should also find out the right man for the right job in right time. The knowledge of the job is essential to perform these functions.
In addition, establishment of the scientific standard in advance is essential to compare the applicants with the job and to select personnel. This standard stipulates the minimum acceptable qualifications, skills, and qualities required for adequate job performance. Stipulating the standard requires the knowledge regarding job design, study of the job duties and responsibilities, requirements of the job human abilities etc. Job analysis is needed to know all these functions and to perform various functions of HRM.
Description of technical terminology is highly necessary in order to facilitate the study of a job analysis. So, it is desirable to define the terms related to job analysis like task, position, job, occupation, job analysis, job description, job specification and job classification.
A task is an action or related group of action designed to produce a definite outcome or result.
A position is a group of similar tasks and responsibilities assigned to one individual. The term is used in this narrow technical sense to facilitate more precise discussion of the job analysis technique.
A job is “a group of positions that are similar as to kind and level of work.�? In some instances only one position may be involved, simply because no other similar position exists. For example, in the small firm the position of personnel manager also constitutes a job since there is only one personnel manager position in the organization. Further, there may be six employees, “all of whom are classified under the same title, yet each performs slightly different work.�? Likewise there may be five or six cashiers in a large commercial bank branch who may do different work.
An occupation “is a group of jobs that are similar as to kind of work and are found throughout an industry or the entire country.�? Occupation is a category of work found in many firms.
Job analysis is defined as “the process of determining, by observation and study, and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others.�?
A job description is “an organized, factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job.�? In brief it should tell what is to done, how it is done and why? It is a standard of function, in that it defines the appropriate and authorized content of a job.
A job specification is “a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. In contrast to the job description it is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for acceptable performance.
Employee specification is a statement of minimum required employee qualifications, namely physical, educational, work etc, which represent the possession of minimum acceptable human qualities (as specified in job specification) by the prospective employee necessary to perform a job.
The above clearly outline what are the inclusions to be made in Job Analysis and how to categorize the same for each job. The concerned personnel or HR manager may initiate an internal system for quantifying the Job analysis and differentiate various positions. This is made on the basis of individual company needs and may not be a standard formula.