Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Dictionary of Human Resources

Chapter 1: The Strategic Role of Human Resource Management

Management Process The five basic functions of management are: planning,

organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.

Human Resource The staffing functions of the management process. Or, the policies

Management and practices needed to carry out the "people" or human resource

aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening,

training, rewarding, and appraising.

Authority The right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to

give orders.

Line Manager Authorized to direct the work of subordinates-they're always

someone's boss. In addition, line managers are in charge of

accomplishing the organization's basic goals.

Staff Manager Assist and advise line managers in accomplishing the basic goals. HR

managers are generally staff managers.

Line Authority The authority to direct the activities of the people in his or her own


Implied Authority The authority exerted by virtue of others' knowledge that he or

she has access to top management.

Functional Control The authority exerted by a personnel manager as a coordinator

of personnel activities.

Employee Advocacy HR must take responsibility for clearly defining how management

should be treating employees, make sure employees have the

mechanisms required to contest unfair practices, and represent the

interests of employees within the framework of its primary obligation to

senior management.

Globalization The tendency of firms to extend their sales or manufacturing to

new markets abroad.

Competitive Advantage Factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or

service from competitors to increase market share.

Cost Leadership The enterprise aims to become the low-cost leader in an industry.

Differentiation A firm seeks to be unique in its industry along dimensions that are

widely valued by buyers.

Page 3 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 3: Job Analysis

Job Analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill

requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be

hired for it.

Job Description A list of a job's duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships,

working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities--one

product of a job analysis.

Job Specification A list of a job's "human requirements," that is, the requisite

education, skills, personality, and so on--another product of a

job analysis.

Diary/Log Daily listings made by workers of every activity in which they

engage along with the time each activity takes.

Position Analysis A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning


Questionnaire (PAQ) duties and responsibilities of various jobs.

Department of Labor Standardized method for rating, classifying, and


Job Analysis virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things.

Functional Job Analysis A method for classifying jobs similar to the

Department of Labor job analysis but additionally taking into

account the extent to which instructions, reasoning,

judgment, and verbal facility are necessary for performing the

job tasks. (page 97)

Page 4 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 4: Personnel Planning and Recruiting

Trend Analysis Study of a firm's past employment needs over a period of

years to predict future needs.

Ratio Analysis A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs

by using ratios between sales volume and number of

employees needed.

Scatter Plot A graphical method used to help identify the relationship

between two variables.

Computerized Forecast The determination of future staff needs by projecting a

firm's sales, volume of production, and personnel required

to maintain this volume of output, using computers and

software packages.

Qualifications Inventories Manual or computerized systematic records,

listing employees' education, career and development

interests, languages, special skills, and so on, to be used

in forecasting inside candidates for promotion.

Personnel Replacement Company records showing present performance and

promotability of inside candidates for the most important



Position Replacement A card prepared for each position in a company to show

possible replacement candidates and their qualifications.


Job Posting Posting notices of job openings on company bulletin

boards is an effective recruiting method.

Occupational Market The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of

Labor publishes projections of labor supply and demand

for various occupations, as do other agencies.


Application Form The form that provides information on education, prior

work record, and skills.

Page 5 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 5: Employee Testing and Selection

Test Validity The accuracy with which a test, interview, and so on measures what it

purports to measure or fulfills the function it was designed to fill.

Criterion Validity A type of validity based on showing that scores on the test (predictors)

are related to job performance.

Content Validity A test that is content--valid is one in which the test contains a fair

sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question.

Reliability The characteristic which refers to the consistency of scores obtained by

the same person when retested with the identical or equivalent tests.

Expectancy Chart A graph showing the relationship between test scores and job

performance for a large group of people.

Work Samples Actual job tasks used in testing applicants' performance.

Work Sampling Technique A testing method based on measuring performance on

actual job tasks.

Management Assessment A situation in which management candidates are asked to make

Centers decisions in hypothetical situations and are scored on their

performance. It usually also involves testing and the use of

management games.

Page 6 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 6: Interviewing Candidates

Nondirective Interview An unstructured conversational-style interview. The interviewer

pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions.

Directive Interview An interview following a set sequence of questions.

Stress Interview An interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of

often rude questions. This technique helps identify hypersensitive

applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance.

Appraisal Interview A discussion following a performance appraisal in which supervisor

and employee discuss the employee's rating and possible remedial


Situational Interview A series of job-related questions which focuses on how the

candidate would behave in a given situation.

Job Related Interview A series of job-related questions which focuses on relevant past

job-related behaviors.

Structured Sequential An interview in which the applicant is interviewed sequentially by

Interview several supervisors and each rates the applicant on a standard form.

Panel Interview An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant.

Candidate-Order Error An error of judgment on the part of the interviewer due to

interviewing one or more very good or very bad candidates just before

the interview in question.

Page 7 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 7: Training and Developing Employees

Employee Orientation A procedure for providing new employees with basic background

information about the firm.

Training The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need

to perform their jobs.

Task Analysis A detailed study of a job to identify the skills required so that an

appropriate training program may be instituted.

Performance Analysis Careful study of performance to identify a deficiency and then

correct it with new equipment, a new employee, a training

program, or some other adjustment.

On-The-Job Training (OJT) Training a person to learn a job while working at it.

Job Instruction Training Listing of each job's basic tasks, along with key points in order to

(JIT) provide step-by-step training for employees.

Programmed Learning A systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting

questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, and giving the

learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her


Vestibule or simulated Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in

Learning airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be


Management Any attempt to improve current or future management

Development performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or

increasing skills.

Succession Planning A process through which senior-level openings are planned for

and eventually filled.

Job Rotation A management training technique that involves moving a trainee

from department to department to broaden his or her experience

and identify strong and weak points.

Action Learning A training technique by which management trainees are allowed

to work full time analyzing and solving problems in other


Case Study Method A development method in which the manager is presented with a

written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and


Page 8 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Management Game A development technique in which teams of managers compete

with one another by making computerized decisions regarding

realistic but simulated companies.

Role Playing A training technique in which trainees act out the parts of people

in a realistic management situation.

Behavior Modeling A training technique in which trainees are first shown good

management techniques in a film, are then asked to play roles in

a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by

their superior.

Controlled Formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training

Experimentation program, preferably with before-and-after tests and a control


Page 9 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 8: Managing Organizational Renewal

Strategic Change A change in a company’s strategy, mission and vision.

Cultural Change A change in a company’s shared values and aims.

Structural Change The reorganizing-redesigning of an organization’s

departmentalization, coordination, span of control, reporting

relationships, or centralization of decision making.

Technological Change Modifications to the work methods an organization uses to

accomplish its tasks.

Organizational HR-based techniques aimed at changing employees’ attitudes,

Development Interventions values, and behavior.

Organizational A method aimed at changing attitudes, values, and beliefs of

Development (OD) employees so that employees can improve the organizations.

Sensitivity Training A method for increasing employees’ insights into their own

Behavior by candid discussions in groups led by special trainers.

Team Building Improving the effectiveness of teams such as corporate officers

and division directors through use of consultants, interviews, and

team-building meetings.

Confrontation Meetings A method for clarifying and bringing into the open iner-group

misconceptions and problems so that they can be resolved.

Survey Research A Method That Involves Surveying Employees’ Attitudes And

providing feedback to the work groups as a basis for problem

analysis and action planning.

Total Quality Management A type of program aimed at maximizing customer


(TQM) through continuous improvements.

Malcolm Baldridge Award An award created by the U.S. Department of Commerce to

recognize quality efforts of U.S. companies.

Functional Team A quality improvement team composed of volunteers who typically

work together as natural work units.

Cross-Functional Team A quality improvement team formed to address problems that cut

across organizational boundaries.

Lead Team A quality improvement team headed by a vice president or other

manager that serves as a steering committee for all the teams

that operate in its area.

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Self-Directed Team A work team that uses consensus decision making to choose its

own team members, solve job-related problems, design its own

jobs, and schedule its own break time.

Business Process The redesign of business processes to achieve improvements in

Reengineering (BPR) such measures of performance as cost, quality, service, and


Flextime A plan whereby employees build their workday around a core of

midday hours.

Four-Day Workweek An arrangement that allows employees to work four ten-hour days

instead of the more usual five eight-hour days.

Job Sharing A concept that allows two to more people to share a single fulltime


Telecommuting A work arrangement in which employees work at remote

locations, usually at home, using video displays, computers, and

other telecommunications equipment to carry out their


Flexyears A work arrangement under which employees can choose (at six

month intervals) the number of hours they want to work each

month over the next year.

Page 11 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 9: Appraising Performance

Graphic Rating Scale A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance

for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the score that

best describes his or her performance for each trait.

Alternation Ranking Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait.


Paired Comparison Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the

Method employees for each trait and indicating which is the better

Employee of the pair.

Forced Distribution Similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of

Method ratees are placed in various categories.

Critical Incident Method Keeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of

an employee's work-related behavior and reviewing it with the

employee at predetermined times.

Behaviorally Anchored An appraisal method that aims at combining the benefits of

Rating Scale (BARS) narrative and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale

with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance.

Management By Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee

Objectives (MBO) and then periodically reviewing the progress made.

Unclear Performance An appraisal scale that is too open to interpretation; instead,

Standards include descriptive phrases that define each trait and what is

meant by standards like "good" or "unsatisfactory."

Halo Effect In performance appraisal, the problem that occurs when a

supervisor's rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating

of that person on other traits.

Central Tendency A tendency to rate all employees the same way, avoiding the high

and the low ratings.

Strictness / Leniency Bias The problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate

all subordinates either high or low.

Bias The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race,

and sex to affect the appraisal rates these employees receive.

Appraisal Interviews An interview in which the supervisor and subordinate review the

appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce


Page 12 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 10: Managing Careers and Fair Treatment

Career Planning and The deliberate process through which a person becomes aware

Development of personal career-related attributes and the lifelong series of

stages that contribute to his or her career fulfillment.

Reality Shock Results of a period that may occur at the initial career entry when

the new employee’s high job expectations confront the reality of a

boring, unchallenging job.

Speak Up! Programs Communications programs that allow employees to register

Questions, concerns, and complaints about work-related matters.

Opinion Surveys Communication devices that use questionnaires to regularly ask

employees their opinions about the company, management, and

work life.

Top-Down Programs Communications activities including in-house television centers,

frequent roundtable discussions, and in-house newsletters that

provide continuing opportunities for the firm to let all employees

be updated on important matter regarding the firm.

Discipline A procedure that corrects or punishes a subordinate because a

rule of procedure has been violated.

Dismissal Involuntary termination of an employee's employment with the


Termination At Will The idea, based in law, that the employment relationship can be

terminated at will by either the employer or the employee for any


Insubordination Willful disregard or disobedience of the boss's authority or

legitimate orders; criticizing the boss in public.

Wrongful Discharge An employee dismissal that does not comply with the law or does

not comply with the contractual arrangement stated or implied by

the firm via its employment application forms, employee manuals,

or other promises.

Termination Interview The interview in which an employee is informed of the fact that he

or she has been dismissed.

Outplacement Counseling A systematic process by which a terminated person is trained and

counseled in the techniques of self-appraisal and securing a new


Page 13 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Plant Closing Law The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, which

requires notifying employees in the event an employer decides to

close its facility.

Layoff A situation in which there is a temporary shortage of work and

employees are told there is no work for them but that

management intends to recall them when work is again available.

Bumping/Layoff Detailed procedures that determine who will be laid off if no work

is available; generally allows employees to use their seniority to

remain on the job.

Voluntary Reduction in An alternative to layoffs in which all employees agree to

Pay Plan reductions in pay to keep everyone working.

Voluntary Time Off An alternative to layoffs in which some employees agree to take

time off to reduce the employer's payroll and avoid the need for a


Rings Of Defense An alternative layoff plan in which temporary supplemental

employees are hired with the understanding that they may be laid

off at any time.

Downsizing Refers to the process of reducing, usually dramatically, the

number of people employed by the firm.

Retirement The point at which a person gives up one's work, usually between

the ages of 60 to 65, but increasingly earlier today due to firms'

early retirement incentive plans.

Preretirement Counseling Counseling provided to employees who are about to retire, which

covers matters such as benefits advice, second careers, and so


Page 14 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 11: Establishing Pay Plans

Employee Compensation All forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising

from their employment.

Davis-Bacon Act A law passed in 1931 that sets wage rates for laborers employed by

contractors working for the federal government.

Walsh-Healey Public Contract Act

A law enacted in 1936 that requires minimum-wage and working

conditions for employees working on any government contract

amounting to more than $10,000.

Fair Labor Standards Act

Congress passed this act in 1936 to provide for minimum wages,

maximum hours, overtime pay, and child labor protection. The law has

been amended many times and covers most employees.

Equal Pay Act of 1963 An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act designed to

require equal pay for women doing the same work as men.

Civil Rights Act This law makes it illegal to discriminate in employment because of race,

color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)

The law that provides government protection of pensions for all

employees with company pension plans. It also regulates vesting rights

(employees who leave before retirement may claim compensation from

the pension plan).

Salary Survey A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. A good salary

survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs. Formal written

questionnaire surveys are the most comprehensive, but telephone

surveys and newspaper ads are also sources of information.

Benchmark Job A job that is used to anchor the employer's pay scale and around which

other jobs are arranged in order of relative worth.

Job Evaluation A systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one

job relative to another.

Compensable Factor A fundamental, compensable element of a job, such as skills,

effort, responsibility, and working conditions.

Ranking Method The simplest method of job evaluation that involves ranking each job

relative to all other jobs, usually based on overall difficulty.

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Classification (Or Grading) A method for categorizing jobs into groups.


Classes Dividing jobs into classes based on a set of rules for each class, such as

amount of independent judgment, skill, physical effort, and so forth,

required for each class of jobs. Classes usually contain similar jobs--

such as all secretaries.

Grades A job classification system synonymous with class, although grades

often contain dissimilar jobs, such as secretaries, mechanics, and

firefighters. Grade descriptions are written based on compensable

factors listed in classification systems, such as the federal classification


Grade Definition Written descriptions of the level of, say, responsibility and knowledge

required by jobs in each grade. Similar jobs can then be combined into

grades or classes.

Point Method The job evaluation method in which a number of compensable factors

are identified and then the degree to which each of these factors is

present on the job is determined.

Factor Comparison Method

A widely used method of ranking jobs according to a variety of skill and

difficulty factors, then adding up these rankings to arrive at an overall

numerical rating for each given job.

Pay Grade A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty.

Wage Curve Shows the relationship between the value of the job and the average

wage paid for this job.

Rate Ranges A series of steps or levels within a pay grade, usually based upon years

of service.

Comparable Worth The concept by which women who are usually paid less than men can

claim that men in comparable rather than strictly equal jobs are paid


Page 16 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 12: Pay-For-Performance and Financial Incentives

Fair Day's Work Frederick Taylor's observation that haphazard setting of piecework

requirements and wages by supervisors was not sufficient, and

that careful study was needed to define acceptable production

quotas for each job.

Scientific Management The careful, scientific study of the job for the purpose of boosting

productivity and job satisfaction.

Spot Bonus A spontaneous incentive awarded to individuals for

accomplishments not readily measured by a standard.

Variable Pay Any plan that ties pay to productivity or profitability, usually as

one-time lump payments.

Piecework A system of pay based on the number of items processed by each

individual worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items

per day.

Straight Piecework Under this pay system each worker receives a set payment for

each piece produced or processed in a factory or shop.


Guaranteed Piecework The minimum hourly wage plus an incentive for each piece

produced above a set number of pieces per hour.


Standard Hour Plan A plan by which a worker is paid a basic hourly rate, but is paid an

extra percentage of his or her base rate for production exceeding

the standard per hour or per day. Similar to piecework payment,

but based on a percent premium.

Team or Group Incentive Plan A plan in which a production standard is set for a specific

work group, and its members are paid incentives if the group

exceed the production standard.

Annual Bonus Plans that are designed to motivate short-term performance of

managers and are tied to company profitability.

Capital Accumulation Long-term incentives most often reserved for senior executives.

Programs Six popular plans include stock options, stock appreciation rights,

performance achievement plans, restricted stock plans, phantom

stock plans, and book value plans.

Stock Option The right to purchase a stated number of shares of a company

stock at today's price at some time in the future.

Page 17 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Merit Pay (Merit Raise) Any salary increase awarded to an employee based on his or her

individual performance.

Profit-Sharing Plan A plan whereby most employees share in the company's profits.

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

A corporation contributes shares of its own stock to a trust in

which additional contributions are made annually. The trust

distributes the stock to employees on retirement or separation

from service.

Scanlon Plan An incentive plan developed in 1937 by Joseph Scanlon and

designed to encourage cooperation, involvement, and sharing of


Gainsharing Plan An incentive plan that engages employees in a common effort to

achieve productivity objectives and share the gains.

Page 18 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 13: Benefits and Services

Benefits Indirect financial payments given to employees. They may

include health and life insurance, vacation, pension, education

plans, and discounts on company products, for instance.

Supplemental Pay Benefits Benefits for time not worked such as unemployment

insurance, vacation and holiday pay and sick pay.

Unemployment Insurance Provides weekly benefits if a person is unable to work through

some fault other than his or her own.

Sick Leave Provides pay to an employee when he or she is out of work

because of illness.

Severance Pay A one-time payment some employers provide when terminating

an employee.

Supplemental Unemployment Benefits

Provide for a guaranteed annual income in certain industries

where employers must shut down to change machinery or due to

reduced work. These benefits are paid by the company and

supplement unemployment benefits.

Worker's Compensation Provides income and medical benefits to work-related accident

victims or their dependents regardless of fault.

Group Life Insurance Provides lower rates for the employer or employee and includes

all employees, including new employees, regardless of health or

physical condition.

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

A prepaid health care system that generally provides routine

round-the-clock medical services as well as preventative medicine

in a clinic-type arrangement for employees, who pay a nominal

fee in addition to the fixed annual fee the employer pays.

Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)

Groups of health care providers that contract with employer’s

insurance companies, or third-party payers to provide medical

care services at a reduced fee.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act Amendment to title VII of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits

sex discrimination based on "pregnancy, childbirth, or related

medical conditions." It requires employers to provide benefits -

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including sick leave and disability benefits and health and medical

insurance - the same as for any employee not able to work

because of disability.

Social Security Provides three types of benefits: retirement income at age 62

and thereafter; survivor's or death benefits payable to the

employee's dependents regardless of age at time of death; and

disability benefits payable to disabled employees and their

dependents. These benefits are payable only if the employee is

insured under the Social Security Act.

Pension Plans Plans that provide a fixed sum when employees reach a

predetermined retirement age or when they can no longer work

due to disability.

Defined Benefit Pension Plan A plan that contains a formula for determining retirement


Defined Contribution Plan A plan in which the employer's contribution to employee's

retirement or savings funds is specified.

Deferred Profit-Sharing Plan A plan in which a certain amount of profits is credited to

each employee's account, payable at retirement, termination, or


Vesting Provision that money placed in a pension fund cannot be forfeited

for any reason.

Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)

Signed into law by President Ford in 1974 to require that pension

rights be vested, and protected by a government agency.

Pension Benefits Guarantee Corporation (PBGC)

Established under ERISA to ensure that pensions meet vesting

obligations; also insures pensions should a plan terminate without

sufficient funds to meet its vested obligations.

Golden Offerings Offers to current employees aimed at encouraging them to retire

early, perhaps even with the same pensions they would expect if

they retired at, say, age 65.

Early Retirement Window A type of golden offering by which employees are encouraged to

retire early, the incentive being liberal pension benefits plus

perhaps a cash payment.

Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

A formal employer program for providing employees with

counseling and/or treatment programs for problems such as

alcoholism, gambling, or stress. (page 495)

Flexible Benefits Program Individualized plans allowed by employers to accommodate

employee preferences for benefits. (page 500)

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Chapter 14: Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining

Closed Shop A form of union security in which the company can hire only union

members. This was outlawed in 1947 but still exists in some

industries (such as printing).

Union Shop A form of union security in which the company can fire nonunion

people, but they must join the union after a prescribed period of

time and pay dues. (If they do not, they can be fired.)

Agency Shop A form of union security in which employees that do not belong to

the union must still pay union dues on the assumption that union

efforts benefit all workers.

Open Shop Perhaps the least attractive type of union security from the

union's point of view, the workers decide whether or not to join

the union; and those who join must pay dues.

Norris-LaGuardia Act This law marked the beginning of the era of strong

encouragement of unions and guaranteed to each employee the

right to bargain collectively "free from interference, restraint, or


National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

The agency created by the Wagner Act to investigate unfair labor

practice charges and to provide for secret-ballot elections and

majority rule in determining whether or not a firm's employees

what a union.

National Labor Relations(or Wagner) Act

This law banned certain types of unfair labor practices and

provided for secret-ballot elections and majority rule for

determining whether or not a firm's employees want to unionize.

Taft-Hartley Act Also known as the Labor Management Relations Act, this law

prohibited union unfair labor practices and enumerated the rights

of employees as union members. It also enumerated the rights of


National emergency strikes Strikes that might "imperil the national health and safety."

Landrum-Griffin Act The law aimed at protecting union members from possible

wrongdoing on the part of their unions.

Page 21 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Union Salting Refers to union organizing tactics by which workers who are in

fact employed full-time by a union as undercover organizers are

hired by unwitting employers.

Authorization Cards In order to petition for a union election, the union must show that

at least 30% of employees may be interested in being unionized.

Employees indicate this interest by signing authorization cards.

Bargaining Unit The group of employees the union will be authorized to represent.

Collective Bargaining The process through which representatives of management and

the union meet to negotiate a labor agreement.

Good Faith Bargaining A term that means both parties are communicating and

negotiating and those proposals are being matched with

counterproposals with both parties making every reasonable effort

to arrive at agreements. It does not mean that either party is

compelled to agree to a proposal.

Voluntary Bargaining Items Items in collective bargaining over which bargaining is

neither illegal nor mandatory--neither party can be compelled

against its wishes to negotiate over those items.

Illegal Bargaining Items Items in collective bargaining that are forbidden by law; for

example, the clause agreeing to hire "union members exclusively"

would be illegal in a right-to-work state.

Mandatory Bargaining Items in collective bargaining that a party must bargain over if

they are introduced by the other party--for example, pay.

Mediation Intervention in which a neutral third party tries to assist the

principals in reaching agreement.

Arbitration The most definitive type of third-party intervention, in which the

arbitrator usually has the power to determine and dictate the

settlement terms.

Economic Strike A strike that results from a failure to agree on the terms of a

contract that involve wages, benefits, and other conditions of


Unfair Labor Practice Strike A strike aimed at protesting illegal conduct by the


Wildcat Strike An unauthorized strike occurring during the term of a contract.

Page 22 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Sympathy Strike A strike that takes place when one union strikes in support of


Corporate Campaign An organized effort by the union that exerts pressure on the

corporation by pressuring the company’s other unions,

shareholders, directors, customers, creditors, and government

agencies, often directly.

Boycott the combined refusal by employees and other interested parties to

buy or use the employer's products.

Lockout A refusal by the employer to provide opportunities to work.

Grievance Any factor involving wages, hours, or conditions of employment

that is used as a complaint against the employer.

Page 23 of 23 Contributed by: Salman Hafeez

Chapter 15: Employee Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health Act

The law passed by congress in 1970 "to assure so far as possible

every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful

working conditions and to preserve our human resources."

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

The agency created within the Department of Labor to set safety

and health standards for almost all workers in the United States.

Citations Summons informing employers and employees of the regulations

and standards that have been violated in the workplace.

Unsafe Conditions The mechanical and physical conditions that cause accidents.

Unsafe Acts Behavior tendencies and undesirable attitudes that cause


Burnout The total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by

excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal.



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